"First Steps of Retinal Photoisomerization in Proteorhodopsin"Martin O. Lenz, Robert Huber, Bernhard Schmidt, Peter Gilch, Rolf Kalmbach, Martin Engelhard and Josef Wachtveitl
Biophys J. 91 (2006) 255
The early steps (<1 ns) in the photocycle of the detergent solubilized proton pump proteorhodopsin are analyzed by ultrafast spectroscopic techniques. A comparison to the first primary events in reconstituted proteorhodopsin as well as to the well known archaeal proton pump bacteriorhodopsin is given. A dynamic Stokes shift observed in fs-time-resolved fluorescence experiments allows a direct observation of early motions on the excited state potential energy surface. The initial dynamics is dominated by sequentially emerging stretching (<150 fs) and torsional (~300 fs) modes of the retinal. The different protonation states of the primary proton acceptor Asp-97 drastically affect the reaction rate and the overall quantum efficiencies of the isomerization reactions, mainly evidenced for time scales above 1 ps. However, no major influence on the fast time scales (~150 fs) could be seen, indicating that the movement out of the Franck-Condon region is fairly robust to electrostatic changes in the retinal binding pocket. Based on fs-time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectra, ground and exited state contributions can be disentangled and allow to construct a reaction model that consistently explains pH-dependent effects in solubilized and reconstituted proteorhodopsin.
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Spectroscopy of the functional dynamics of proteins