"High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney"Peter M. Andrews, Yu Chen, Maristela L. Onozato, Shu-Wei Huang, Desmond C. Adler, Robert A. Huber, James Jiang, Scott E. Barry, Alex E. Cable, James G. Fujimoto
Laboratory Investigation 88, 441 (2008)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can provide non-invasive, cross-sectional, high-resolution images of tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. In the present series of studies, we used a high-speed OCT imaging system equipped with a frequency-swept laser light source (1.3 mum wavelength) to study living kidneys in situ. Adult, male Munich–Wistar rats were anesthetized, a laparotomy was performed and the living kidneys were exposed for in situ observation. We observed the kidneys prior to, during and following exposure to renal ischemia induced by clamping the renal artery. The effects of intravenous mannitol infusion (1.0 ml of 25%) prior to and during renal ischemia were also studied. Finally, living kidneys were flushed with a renal preservation solution, excised and observed while being stored at 0–4°C. Three-dimensional OCT data sets enabled visualization of the morphology of the uriniferous tubules and the renal corpuscles. When renal ischemia was induced, OCT revealed dramatic shrinkage of tubular lumens due to swelling of the lining epithelium. Three-dimensional visualization and volumetric rendering software provided an accurate evaluation of volumetric changes in tubular lumens in response to renal ischemia. Observations of kidneys flushed with a renal preservation solution and stored at 0–4°C also revealed progressive and significant loss of tubular integrity over time. Intravenous infusion of mannitol solution resulted in thinning of the tubular walls and an increase in the tubular lumen diameters. Mannitol infusion also prevented the cell swelling that otherwise resulted in shrinkage of proximal tubule lumens during ischemia. We conclude that OCT represents an exciting new approach to visualize, in real-time, pathological changes in the living kidney in a non-invasive fashion. Possible clinical applications are discussed.
BMO authors (in alphabetic order):
Optical Coherent Ranging and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Imaging and profilometry with rapidly frequency swept laser sources
Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): Spectral mode locking in optics and applications